Wednesday, July 2, 2014

The common direct maternal ancestor to all women alive today was born in East Africa about 180,000 years ago. Though not the only woman alive at the time, hers is the only line to survive into current generations.
From East Africa, groups containing this lineage spread across Africa. Between 60 and 70 thousand years ago, some groups moved from Africa to Asia. Your line traces to one of these groups.
Around 32,000 years ago, your line was born in West Asia. There, your ancestors lived through the Paleolithic and the last glacial maximum. At the end of the last ice age, the beginning of settled agriculture triggered a population expansion among members of this line, but their story was just beginning.
The map below shows how your female ancestors distributed around the world. It actually shows the distribution of J - they do not have enough data yet to show the distribution of the daughter lineage of J1c3g.


INTRODUCTION TO YOUR STORY

We will now take you back through the stories of your distant ancestors and show how the movements of their descendants gave rise to your lineage.
Each segment on the map above represents the migratory path of successive groups that eventually coalesced to form your branch of the tree. We start with the marker for your oldest ancestor, and walk forward to more recent times, showing at each step the line of your ancestors who lived up to that point.
What is a marker? Each of us carries DNA that is a combination of genes passed from both our mother and father, giving us traits that range from eye color and height to athleticism and disease susceptibility. As part of this process, the Y-chromosome is passed directly from father to son, unchanged, from generation to generation down a purely male line. Mitochondrial DNA, on the other hand, is passed from mothers to their children, but only their daughters pass it on to the next generation. It traces a purely maternal line.
The DNA is passed on unchanged, unless a mutation—a random, naturally occurring, usually harmless change—occurs. The mutation, known as a marker, acts as a beacon; it can be mapped through generations because it will be passed down for thousands of years.
When geneticists identify such a marker, they try to figure out when it first occurred, and in which geographic region of the world. Each marker is essentially the beginning of a new lineage on the family tree of the human race. Tracking the lineages provides a picture of how small tribes of modern humans in Africa tens of thousands of years ago diversified and spread to populate the world.
By looking at the markers you carry, we can trace your lineage, ancestor by ancestor, to reveal the path they traveled as they moved out of Africa. Our story begins with your earliest ancestor. Who were they, where did they live, and what is their story? 
The MtDNA shared by Beth and Serena and their descendants and ancestors on the female line are "J", called Jasmine. The MtDna is passed from mother to child with very minimal changes.

The MtDNA does occationally change and the line shared by them is further subdivided into J1c3g. The women below share this ancestry and are all cousins.

This is a small sample, but it appears that there are 7 women from the United Kingdom/Ireland and 4 from Norway.  There are 68 million people in the United Kingdom/Ireland and  5 million in Norway. 

The ratios below:

Country       J1C3g    Population
                                   Millions

Norway            4              5
UK/Ireland       7            68 


The higher ratio of women carrying J1C3g indicated that the line probably originated in Norway and moved into the United Kingdom/Ireland with the Vikings. As additional DNA tests are conducted we will have a larger sample size and we will see if the Viking hypotheses holds up.

Mrs. Charles Miller (Meeker), Clark County Illinio
Chursina Maria
Marthe Olsdatter Ruud b. 1813 Ruud,Hurdal, Norway
Sophia Coombe, 1819-1881, b. Mevigassey, Cornwall
Karen Larsdatter b 1690 Sørreisa, TRO, NO
Alida De Raad
(J1c3g) Agnes Russell 1829 -1899 Edinburgh, Scot.
Anne K. Andersd., 1798-, Brunlanes, VFO, NO
Martha Smith, Norwich UK b. 1817 d 1 Feb 1889
Catherine O'Meara b.1830 -d.1890,Limerick, Ireland
Marjory (May) McKinnon b. 1814 and d. 1881
Elizabeth Self b. 1775? d. 1840?
Margaret Wortham b. 1834 Ky. d. 1879 KY
Mary Ann Kennedy-Fahey abt1800
Elizabeth Lawn b.c. 1815 Ireland, d NB Canada
Isabella Donaldson, b.1874, Stirling, Scotland
Anne Williams 1794 Llanfihangel y Traethau, Wales
Ingeborg Olsdatter, b. 1689 and d. 1728
Janet Dustan b.1801 d. 1883
Ouida Louise Kototisky, b.1906 and d. 1965


Your Maternal MtDNA is J1c3g.  All of your female ancestors and your daughter / sister / niece / grand  niece share the same signature. Everyone alive today is descended from one woman.  There were slow evolutionary changes to your DNA. You MtDNA is J, further modified over time to be J1c36.

The common direct maternal ancestor to all women alive today was born in East Africa about 180,000 years ago. Though not the only woman alive at the time, hers is the only line to survive into current generations.
From East Africa, groups containing this lineage spread across Africa. Between 60 and 70 thousand years ago, some groups moved from Africa to Asia. Your line traces to one of these groups.
Around 32,000 years ago, your line was born in West Asia. There, your ancestors lived through the Paleolithic and the last glacial maximum. At the end of the last ice age, the beginning of settled agriculture triggered a population expansion among members of this line, but their story was just beginning.

The map below shows how your female ancestors distributed around the world. It actually shows the distribution of J - they do not have enough data yet to show the distribution of the daughter lineage of J1c3g.



INTRODUCTION TO YOUR STORY

We will now take you back through the stories of your distant ancestors and show how the movements of their descendants gave rise to your lineage.
Each segment on the map above represents the migratory path of successive groups that eventually coalesced to form your branch of the tree. We start with the marker for your oldest ancestor, and walk forward to more recent times, showing at each step the line of your ancestors who lived up to that point.
What is a marker? Each of us carries DNA that is a combination of genes passed from both our mother and father, giving us traits that range from eye color and height to athleticism and disease susceptibility. As part of this process, the Y-chromosome is passed directly from father to son, unchanged, from generation to generation down a purely male line. Mitochondrial DNA, on the other hand, is passed from mothers to their children, but only their daughters pass it on to the next generation. It traces a purely maternal line.
The DNA is passed on unchanged, unless a mutation—a random, naturally occurring, usually harmless change—occurs. The mutation, known as a marker, acts as a beacon; it can be mapped through generations because it will be passed down for thousands of years.
When geneticists identify such a marker, they try to figure out when it first occurred, and in which geographic region of the world. Each marker is essentially the beginning of a new lineage on the family tree of the human race. Tracking the lineages provides a picture of how small tribes of modern humans in Africa tens of thousands of years ago diversified and spread to populate the world.
By looking at the markers you carry, we can trace your lineage, ancestor by ancestor, to reveal the path they traveled as they moved out of Africa. Our story begins with your earliest ancestor. Who were they, where did they live, and what is their story? 

Wednesday, August 14, 2013

The genetic history of Beth Ruyle, extracted from DNA Test results






WHO AM I?

We are all more than the sum of our parts, but the results below offer some of the most dramatic and fascinating information in your Geno 2.0 test. In this section, we display your affiliations with a set of nine world regions. This information is determined from your entire genome so we’re able to see both parents’ information, going back six generations. Your percentages reflect both recent influences and ancient genetic patterns in your DNA due to migrations as groups from different regions mixed over thousands of years. Your ancestors also mixed with ancient, now extinct hominid cousins like Neanderthals in Europe and the Middle East or the Denisovans in Asia. If you have a very mixed background, the pattern can get complicated quickly! Use the reference population matches below to help understand your particular result. VIEW THE "WHO AM I" VIDEO

YOUR RESULTS

map

41%

NORTHERN EUROPEAN

This component of your ancestry is found at highest frequency in northern European populations—people from the UK, Denmark, Finland, Russia and Germany in our reference populations. While not limited to these groups, it is found at lower frequencies throughout the rest of Europe. This component is likely the signal of the earliest hunter-gatherer inhabitants of Europe, who were the last to make the transition to agriculture as it moved in from the Middle East during the Neolithic period around 8,000 years ago.
Note: In some cases regional percentages may not total 100%.

WHAT YOUR RESULTS MEAN

Modern day indigenous populations around the world carry particular blends of these regions. We compared your DNA results to the reference populations we currently have in our database and estimated which of these were most similar to you in terms of the genetic markers you carry. This doesn’t necessarily mean that you belong to these groups or are directly from these regions, but that these groups were a similar genetic match and can be used as a guide to help determine why you have a certain result. Remember, this is a mixture of both recent (past six generations) and ancient patterns established over thousands of years, so you may see surprising regional percentages. Read each of the population descriptions below to better interpret your particular result.

YOUR FIRST REFERENCE POPULATION: FINNISH

This reference population is based on samples collected from people native to Finland. The dominant 57% Northern European component likely reflects the earliest settlers in Europe, hunter-gatherers who arrived there more than 35,000 years ago. The 17% Mediterranean and 17% Southwest Asian percentages arrived later, with the spread of agriculture from the Fertile Crescent in the Middle East, over the past 10,000 years. As these early farmers moved into Europe, they spread their genetic patterns as well. Today, northern European populations retain the links to both earliest Europeans and these later migrants from the Middle East. The 7% Northeast Asian component reflects mixing with native Siberian populations, particularly the reindeer-herding Saami people of far northern Scandinavia.

FINNISH

  • NORTHERN EUROPEAN

    57%

  • SOUTHWEST ASIAN

    17%

  • MEDITERRANEAN

    17%

  • NORTHEAST ASIAN

    7%

YOU

  • 41%

    NORTHERN EUROPEAN

  • 37%

    MEDITERRANEAN

  • 18%

    SOUTHWEST ASIAN

  • 2%

    NORTHEAST ASIAN

YOUR SECOND REFERENCE POPULATION: TUSCAN (ITALY)

This reference population is based on samples collected from Italians native to Tuscany. The 54% Mediterranean and 17% Southwest Asian percentages reflect the strong influence of agriculturalists from the Fertile Crescent in the Middle East, who arrived in Italy more than 7,000 years ago. The 28% Northern European component likely comes from the pre-agricultural population of Europe—the earliest settlers, who arrived in Europe more than 35,000 years ago during the Upper Paleolithic period—and was perhaps increased during the conquest of northern Italy by the Germanic Lombards in the 6th-8th centuries.  Today, the Northern European component predominates in northern European populations, while the Mediterranean component is more common in southern Europe.

TUSCAN (ITALY)

  • MEDITERRANEAN

    54%

  • NORTHERN EUROPEAN

    28%

  • SOUTHWEST ASIAN

    17%

YOU

  • 41%

    NORTHERN EUROPEAN

  • 37%

    MEDITERRANEAN

  • 18%

    SOUTHWEST ASIAN

  • 2%

    NORTHEAST ASIAN

YOUR HOMINID ANCESTRY

When our ancestors first migrated out of Africa around 60,000 years ago, they were not alone. At that time, at least two other species of hominid cousins walked the Eurasian landmass: Neanderthals and Denisovans. Most non-Africans are about 2% Neanderthal. The Denisovan component of your Geno 2.0 results is more experimental, as we are still working to determine the best way to assess the percentage Denisovan ancestry you carry. The evolution of this data is another way you are actively involved in helping advance knowledge of anthropolo






Beth on the left and her sister Serena


Tuesday, August 13, 2013

Maternal Line

The Godwin maternal line for Serena Windham and Beth Hullinger

Barbary Godwin.

Elizabeth Godwin b. December 5, 1805

Martha “Mattie” Carolyn Smith b. May 16, 1847, d. Dec 20, 1891 (Smithville, GA named for her).

Mable (Mae) Barrow b Oct 19, 1882

Mable Young b Jul 17, 1924 d Nov 20, 2003

Serena Young Windham and Beth Young Ruyle Hullinger

Monday, August 12, 2013

Beth and Craig Compared

The graphics below compare Beth and Craig.  Interesting that we are most like someone from Finland.  That does not mean our ancestors are from Finland- just that the distribution of our ancestry is most like someone from Finland.  The area that Beth is next most like is Tuscany, while Craig is most like a Greek.

Beth above, Craig lower (as it should be)










From an Older Test


Sunday, August 11, 2013

From Wikapedia

human mitochondrial geneticsHaplogroup J is a human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroup. Haplogroup J derives from the haplogroup JT, which also gave rise to Haplogroup T. In his popular book The Seven Daughters of EveBryan Sykes named the originator of this mtDNA haplogroup Jasmine. Within the field of medical genetics, certain polymorphisms specific to haplogroup J have been associated with Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy.[2]

Origin[edit source | editbeta]

Around 45,000 years before present, a mutation took place in the DNA of a woman who lived in the Near East or Caucasus. Further mutations took place in the J line which can be identified as J1a1 (27,000 yrs ago), J2a (19,000 yrs ago), J2b2 (16,000 years ago), J2b3 (5,800 yrs ago), etc. Haplogroup J (along with ‘T’) MtDNA J & T colonised Europe from the Near East in the late Paleolithic & Mesolithic.
Coalescence time estimates for the subclades of mitochondrial haplogroup J
SubcladeEuropean coalescence time[2]Near East coalescence time[2]
J1a127,300 years (± 8,000 years)17,700 years (± 2,500 years)
J1a27,700 years (± 3,500 years)
J1b5,000 years (± 2,200 years)23,300 years (± 4,300 years)
J2a19,200 years(± 6,900 years)
J2b115,000 years (± 5000 years)
J2b2161,600* years (± 8,100 years)16,000 years (± 5,700 years)
J2b35,800 years (± 2,900 years)
*Typographical error from original source material as per time table describing the spread of populations given in the same study.
However, any statements concerning the geographic origin of this or any other haplogroup are highly speculative and considered by most population geneticists to be 'story telling' and outside the domain of science[citation needed] . Furthermore, inferring close associations between a haplogroup and a specific archaeological culture can be equally problematic.[by whom?]

Distribution[edit source | editbeta]

Haplogroup J is found in approximately 12% of native Europeans.[3][4]
Average frequency of J Haplogroup as a whole is highest in the Near East (12%) followed by Europe (11%), Caucasus (8%) and North Africa (6%). Of the two main sub-groups, J1 takes up four-fifths of the total and is spread on the continent while J2 is more localised around the Mediterranean, Greece, Italy/Sardinia and Spain. In Pakistan, where West Eurasian lineages occur at frequencies of up to 50% in some ethno-linguistic groups, J1 averages around 5%, while J2 occurrence is very rare. Intriguingly, however, it is found amongst 9% of Kalash.
Within Europe, >2% frequency distribution of mtDNA J is as follows:[5]
  • J* = Ireland — 12%, England-Wales — 11%, Scotland — 9%, Orkney — 8%, Germany — 7%, Russia (European) — 7%, Iceland — 7%, Austria-Switzerland — 5%, Finland-Estonia — 5%, Spain-Portugal — 4%, France-Italy — 3%
  • J1a = Austria-Switzerland — 3%
  • J1b1 = Scotland — 4%
  • J2 = France-Italy — 2%
  • J2a = Homogenously spread in Europe. Absent in the nations around the Caucasus. Not known to be found elsewhere.[2]
  • J2b1 = Virtually absent in Europe. Found in diverse forms in the Near East.[2]

Subclades[edit source | editbeta]

Tree[edit source | editbeta]

This phylogenetic tree of haplogroup J subclades is based on the paper by Mannis van Oven and Manfred Kayser Updated comprehensive phylogenetic tree of global human mitochondrial DNA variation[1] and subsequent published research.

Genetic traits[edit source | editbeta]

It has been theorized[by whom?] that the uncoupling of oxidative phosphorylation related to SNPs which define mt-haplogroup J consequently produces higher body heat in the phenotype of mtDNA J individuals. This has been linked to selective pressure for the presence of the haplogroup in northern Europe, particularly Norway.[6] J mtDNA has also been associated with HIV infected individuals displaying accelerated progression to AIDS and death.[7] The T150C mutation, which is exclusive to but not definitive of, the J2 subclade of Haplogroup J may be part of a likely nuclearly controlled general machinery regarding the remodeling & replication of mtDNA. Controlling a remodeling which could accelerate mtDNA replication thus compensating for oxidative damage in mtDNA as well as functional deterioration occurring with old age related to it.[8]

Popular culture[edit source | editbeta]

Ximena Navarrete Miss Universe 2010, is haplogroup J.[9]

See also[edit source | editbeta]