Wednesday, July 2, 2014

The common direct maternal ancestor to all women alive today was born in East Africa about 180,000 years ago. Though not the only woman alive at the time, hers is the only line to survive into current generations.
From East Africa, groups containing this lineage spread across Africa. Between 60 and 70 thousand years ago, some groups moved from Africa to Asia. Your line traces to one of these groups.
Around 32,000 years ago, your line was born in West Asia. There, your ancestors lived through the Paleolithic and the last glacial maximum. At the end of the last ice age, the beginning of settled agriculture triggered a population expansion among members of this line, but their story was just beginning.
The map below shows how your female ancestors distributed around the world. It actually shows the distribution of J - they do not have enough data yet to show the distribution of the daughter lineage of J1c3g.


INTRODUCTION TO YOUR STORY

We will now take you back through the stories of your distant ancestors and show how the movements of their descendants gave rise to your lineage.
Each segment on the map above represents the migratory path of successive groups that eventually coalesced to form your branch of the tree. We start with the marker for your oldest ancestor, and walk forward to more recent times, showing at each step the line of your ancestors who lived up to that point.
What is a marker? Each of us carries DNA that is a combination of genes passed from both our mother and father, giving us traits that range from eye color and height to athleticism and disease susceptibility. As part of this process, the Y-chromosome is passed directly from father to son, unchanged, from generation to generation down a purely male line. Mitochondrial DNA, on the other hand, is passed from mothers to their children, but only their daughters pass it on to the next generation. It traces a purely maternal line.
The DNA is passed on unchanged, unless a mutation—a random, naturally occurring, usually harmless change—occurs. The mutation, known as a marker, acts as a beacon; it can be mapped through generations because it will be passed down for thousands of years.
When geneticists identify such a marker, they try to figure out when it first occurred, and in which geographic region of the world. Each marker is essentially the beginning of a new lineage on the family tree of the human race. Tracking the lineages provides a picture of how small tribes of modern humans in Africa tens of thousands of years ago diversified and spread to populate the world.
By looking at the markers you carry, we can trace your lineage, ancestor by ancestor, to reveal the path they traveled as they moved out of Africa. Our story begins with your earliest ancestor. Who were they, where did they live, and what is their story? 
The MtDNA shared by Beth and Serena and their descendants and ancestors on the female line are "J", called Jasmine. The MtDna is passed from mother to child with very minimal changes.

The MtDNA does occationally change and the line shared by them is further subdivided into J1c3g. The women below share this ancestry and are all cousins.

This is a small sample, but it appears that there are 7 women from the United Kingdom/Ireland and 4 from Norway.  There are 68 million people in the United Kingdom/Ireland and  5 million in Norway. 

The ratios below:

Country       J1C3g    Population
                                   Millions

Norway            4              5
UK/Ireland       7            68 


The higher ratio of women carrying J1C3g indicated that the line probably originated in Norway and moved into the United Kingdom/Ireland with the Vikings. As additional DNA tests are conducted we will have a larger sample size and we will see if the Viking hypotheses holds up.

Mrs. Charles Miller (Meeker), Clark County Illinio
Chursina Maria
Marthe Olsdatter Ruud b. 1813 Ruud,Hurdal, Norway
Sophia Coombe, 1819-1881, b. Mevigassey, Cornwall
Karen Larsdatter b 1690 Sørreisa, TRO, NO
Alida De Raad
(J1c3g) Agnes Russell 1829 -1899 Edinburgh, Scot.
Anne K. Andersd., 1798-, Brunlanes, VFO, NO
Martha Smith, Norwich UK b. 1817 d 1 Feb 1889
Catherine O'Meara b.1830 -d.1890,Limerick, Ireland
Marjory (May) McKinnon b. 1814 and d. 1881
Elizabeth Self b. 1775? d. 1840?
Margaret Wortham b. 1834 Ky. d. 1879 KY
Mary Ann Kennedy-Fahey abt1800
Elizabeth Lawn b.c. 1815 Ireland, d NB Canada
Isabella Donaldson, b.1874, Stirling, Scotland
Anne Williams 1794 Llanfihangel y Traethau, Wales
Ingeborg Olsdatter, b. 1689 and d. 1728
Janet Dustan b.1801 d. 1883
Ouida Louise Kototisky, b.1906 and d. 1965


Your Maternal MtDNA is J1c3g.  All of your female ancestors and your daughter / sister / niece / grand  niece share the same signature. Everyone alive today is descended from one woman.  There were slow evolutionary changes to your DNA. You MtDNA is J, further modified over time to be J1c36.

The common direct maternal ancestor to all women alive today was born in East Africa about 180,000 years ago. Though not the only woman alive at the time, hers is the only line to survive into current generations.
From East Africa, groups containing this lineage spread across Africa. Between 60 and 70 thousand years ago, some groups moved from Africa to Asia. Your line traces to one of these groups.
Around 32,000 years ago, your line was born in West Asia. There, your ancestors lived through the Paleolithic and the last glacial maximum. At the end of the last ice age, the beginning of settled agriculture triggered a population expansion among members of this line, but their story was just beginning.

The map below shows how your female ancestors distributed around the world. It actually shows the distribution of J - they do not have enough data yet to show the distribution of the daughter lineage of J1c3g.



INTRODUCTION TO YOUR STORY

We will now take you back through the stories of your distant ancestors and show how the movements of their descendants gave rise to your lineage.
Each segment on the map above represents the migratory path of successive groups that eventually coalesced to form your branch of the tree. We start with the marker for your oldest ancestor, and walk forward to more recent times, showing at each step the line of your ancestors who lived up to that point.
What is a marker? Each of us carries DNA that is a combination of genes passed from both our mother and father, giving us traits that range from eye color and height to athleticism and disease susceptibility. As part of this process, the Y-chromosome is passed directly from father to son, unchanged, from generation to generation down a purely male line. Mitochondrial DNA, on the other hand, is passed from mothers to their children, but only their daughters pass it on to the next generation. It traces a purely maternal line.
The DNA is passed on unchanged, unless a mutation—a random, naturally occurring, usually harmless change—occurs. The mutation, known as a marker, acts as a beacon; it can be mapped through generations because it will be passed down for thousands of years.
When geneticists identify such a marker, they try to figure out when it first occurred, and in which geographic region of the world. Each marker is essentially the beginning of a new lineage on the family tree of the human race. Tracking the lineages provides a picture of how small tribes of modern humans in Africa tens of thousands of years ago diversified and spread to populate the world.
By looking at the markers you carry, we can trace your lineage, ancestor by ancestor, to reveal the path they traveled as they moved out of Africa. Our story begins with your earliest ancestor. Who were they, where did they live, and what is their story? 

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